The cerebral structures that produce the conscience in the human beings also exist in the animals. As Philip Low (2012) point, “The cerebral areas that distinguish us from other animals are not those who produce the conscience.

Philip Low, is a prominent inventor, neurotechnologist, and computational neuroscientist, the Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer of NeuroVigil, the neurodiagnostics company responsible for iBrain. The Harvard Animal Consciuosness Symposium (2014). [Online]

Available from:

[Accessed: 9th March 2016]

In association whit Stephen Hawking, he was overturned in investigating the brain structures in both, human and animals and the correlations between them. At the end they found that “birds appear to offer, in their behavior, neurophysiology, and neuroanatomy a striking case of parallel evolution of consciousness. Evidence of near human-like levels of consciousness has been most observed in African grey parrots.

In addition certain species of birds have been found to exhibit neural sleep patterns similar to those of mammals, including REM sleep and, as was demonstrated in zebra finches, neurophysiological patterns, previously thought to require a mammalian neocortex. Magpies in particular have been shown to exhibit striking similarities to humans, great apes, dolphins, and elephants in studies of mirror self-recognition”.

In July 7th, 2012 Philiph Low and other 25 Neuroscientist, signed “The Cambridge Declaration On Consciousness” in which they declared that “The absence of a neocortex does not appear to preclude an organism from experiencing affective states. Convergent evidence indicates that non-human animals have the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological substrates of conscious states along with the capacity to exhibit intentional behaviors. Consequently, the weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Nonhuman animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these neurological substrates.” LOW (2012). Cambridge Declaration On Consciousness. [Online].Cambridge Uk. July 7th, 2012.

Available from:

[Accesed:9th March 2016]

Ruth Talavera Flores


Research Associate & IRIANS’s Representative for

the Iberian Peninsula and Mexico

IRIANS – The Neuroscience Institute


One Comment Add yours

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s